Sanitation issues in India

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India has a serious sanitation challenge; around 60 per cent of the worlds open defecation takes place in India. Even today, only around 28,000 gram panchayats out of 2.5 lakh in India have achieved the Nirmal Gram (open defecation free village) status. Poor sanitation causes health hazards including diarrhoea, particularly in children under 5 years of age, malnutrition and deficiencies in physical development and cognitive ability.

We have to work with children and communities to realise their right to clean and adequate qualities of drinking water, sanitation and hygiene since they have direct bearing on the right to life and dignity. Lack of these entitlements and services in the communities put children at risk of disease and mortality. When access to water is difficult or schools are without toilets, many children (especially girls) face increased burdens on their time and risks to their learning and safety. Lack of Operation and Maintenance (O&M) funds and dedicated workers for toilet block maintenance results in slip back. Poor and marginalised families who are living with income poverty find it challenging to pay for these services hence the emphasis is on invoking the responsibility of the government for its provision.

We have to address the issues of poor sanitation, which seep into every aspect of life – health, nutrition, development, economy, dignity and empowerment. It perpetuates an intergenerational cycle of poverty and deprivation. To meet the country’s sanitation and hygiene challenge there is an urgent need to focus on triggering the demand for improved sanitation facilities, ensuring their quality, use and maintenance. This is achieved by creating a culture of “social sanctions” that challenges the acceptance of open defecation once and for all. Making this happen requires substantial resource and time investment to inculcate a lasting change in behaviour and adoption of key hygiene practices at the community and household level.

R K Srinivasan, WASH Technical Advisor, Plan India. Under the guidance of the Director, Strategy, New Delhi Office, responsible for facilitating and influencing the State Government’s evidence based policy, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, and documentation for WASH sector plans and projects. Supporting state and District level, Plan Staff and Plan Partner staff in community based WASH intervention. Leadership and sector specific guidance from the Key Resource Centre (KRC), created by the Ministry of Drinking Water supply and Sanitation, New Delhi.

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